Key Management

You need key material to sign issued tokens, e.g. identity tokens, JWT access tokens, logout tokens etc.

Duende IdentityServer supports signing tokens using the RS, PS and ES family of cryptographic signing algorithms. You can configure the keys either statically by loading them from a secured location manually, or using the automatic key management feature (recommended).

Automatic key management

The automatic key management feature follows best practices for handling signing key material:

  • automatic key rotation
  • secure storage of keys at rest
  • announcement upcoming new keys in discovery
  • maintenance of retired keys in discovery

Automatic key management is on by default, and creates RSA keys for RS256 usage in the ~/keys folder on the filesystem. The keys are automatically rotated every 90 days, announced 14 days in advance, and retained for 14 days after it expires.

You can configure the key management parameters on the IdentityServerOptions, e.g.:

var builder = services.AddIdentityServer(options =>
{
    // set path where to store keys
    options.KeyManagement.KeyPath = "/home/shared/keys";
    
    // new key every 30 days
    options.KeyManagement.RotationInterval = TimeSpan.FromDays(30);
    
    // announce new key 2 days in advance in discovery
    options.KeyManagement.PropagationTime = TimeSpan.FromDays(2);
    
    // keep old key for 7 days in discovery for validation of tokens
    options.KeyManagement.RetentionDuration = TimeSpan.FromDays(7);
});

Manage multiple keys

If no specific signing algorithms are configured, key management will auto-maintain an RSA key for the RS256 signing algorithm. You can specify multiple keys, algorithm, and if those keys should additionally get wrapped in an X.509 certificate.

options.KeyManagement.SigningAlgorithms = new[]
{
    // RS256 for older clients (with additional X.509 wrapping)
    new SigningAlgorithmOptions(SecurityAlgorithms.RsaSha256) { UseX509Certificate = true },
    
    // PS256
    new SigningAlgorithmOptions(SecurityAlgorithms.RsaSsaPssSha256),
    
    // ES256
    new SigningAlgorithmOptions(SecurityAlgorithms.EcdsaSha256)
};

When you register multiple keys, the first key in the list will be the default key. Client and API resource definitions both have a AllowedTokenSigningAlgorithm property to override the default on a per resource and client basis.

Key storage and protection

By default the keys will be protected at rest using the ASP.NET Core Data Protection mechanism. See the deployment section to learn more about setting up data protection.

Key storage defaults to the file system, but is extensible. We also provide EntityFramework integration.

Static key configuration

You can also statically configure your key material. A common scenario would be to load your keys from a key vault or other secured location at startup. With static configuration you are responsible for the secure storage, loading and rotation.

For this purpose you disable the automatic key management, and load the keys manually with the AddSigningCredential DI extension method:

var builder = services.AddIdentityServer(options =>
{  
    options.KeyManagement.Enabled = false;
});

var key = LoadKeyFromVault();
builder.AddSigningCredential(key, SecurityAlgorithms.RsaSha256);

You can call AddSigningCredential multiple times if you want to register more than one signing key. Another extension method called AddValidationKey can be called to register public keys, that should be accepted for token validation.

A signing key registered with AddSigningCredential will take precedence over any keys created by the automatic key management feature.

Disabling automatic key management

The automatic key management feature can be disabled by setting the Enabled flag to false on the the IdentityServerOptions, e.g.:

var builder = services.AddIdentityServer(options =>
{
    options.KeyManagement.Enabled = false;
});