Persisted Grant Store

The IPersistedGrantStore interface is the contract for a service that stores, retrieves, and deletes persisted grants. A grant is a somewhat abstract concept that is used in various protocol flows and represents that a resource owner has given authorization of some kind. Grants that require server side state in IdentityServer are the persisted grants stored by the IPersistedGrantStore.

The IPersistedGrantStore is abstracted to allow for storage of several grant types, including authorization codes, refresh tokens, user consent, and reference tokens. Some specialized grant types, including device flow and CIBA, use their own specialized stores instead.

IdentityServer includes two implementations of the IPersistedGrantStore. The InMemoryPersistedGrantStore unsurprisingly persists grants in memory and is intended for demos, tests, and other situations where persistent storage is not actually necessary. In contrast, the Duende.IdentityServer.EntityFramework.Stores.PersistedGrantStore durably persists grants to a database using EntityFramework, and can be used with any database with an EF provider.

You can also provide your own implementation of the IPersistedGrantStore. This allows for complete control of the data access code so that you can support other data stores that lack an EF provider, and so that you can optimize the data access for your environment and usage.



name description
Task StoreAsync(PersistedGrant grant); Stores a grant.
Task GetAsync(string key); Retrieves a grant by its key.
Task<IEnumerable> GetAllAsync(PersistedGrantFilter filter); Retrieves all grants that fulfill the conditions of a filter.
Task RemoveAsync(string key); Removes a grant by key.
Task RemoveAllAsync(PersistedGrantFilter filter); Removes all grants that fulfill the conditions of a filter.



name description
string Key A string that uniquely identifies the grant.
string Type A string that specifies the type of grant. The possible values are constants in the PersistedGrantTypes class (see below).
string SubjectId The identifier of the subject that granted authorization.
string SessionId The identifier of the session where the grant was made, if applicable.
string ClientId The identifier of the client that was granted authorization.
string Description The description the user assigned to the device being authorized.
DateTime CreationTime The time that the grant expires.
DateTime? Expiration The time that the grant expires.
DateTime? ConsumedTime The time that the grant was consumed.
string Data A serialized and data protected representation of the grant.

Key Property

The Key property contains a SHA256 hash of the value used to refer to individual grants. For authorization codes, refresh tokens, and reference tokens, the stored Key hashes the actual value sent to the client as part of the protocol flow. For example, refresh token records use a hash of the actual refresh token parameter sent to the client as their Key. In contrast, user consent is not identified by a single protocol parameter. Instead, the Key value for user consent records comes from a hash of a combination of subject id and client id. In all cases, the value that is hashed to compute the Key also includes the grant type.

Beginning in v6.0, the hashes that IdentityServer passes to the IPersistedGrantStore to use as Key values are formatted as hex values. In earlier versions, the Keys were base-64 encoded. That occasionally caused database collation issues in case-insensitive databases, which prompted the change to hex encoding. To facilitate migration, IdentityServer adds a version suffix ("-1") to indicate that the newer hex encoding should be used during hashing. For example, the refresh token parameter “27931A10FBCA75583C5576DAFB5DBDF0A9BCA8D6BD38B7CF142C47D6E44ED24D-1” ends in the “-1” suffix, so when IdentityServer searches for its persisted grant record, it computes the hash of the parameter value, applies hex encoding, and then calls IPersistedGrantStore.GetAsync(…), passing the resulting hex encoded value. A refresh token created before v6.0 would not include the “-1” suffix, so IdentityServer would instead pass a base-64 encoded hash to the GetAsync method.

However, consent records were not migrated to use hex encoding of their Key values until IdentityServer v7.0. Since there’s no protocol parameter that corresponds to consent records, there’s no way to use the protocol parameters to determine which encoding to use. So, prior to v7.0, the consent Key values remained in the base-64 encoding.

Beginning in v7.0, IdentityServer uses hex encoding for Consent Key values, but falls back to base-64 encoding when hex encoding fails to find a grant. In that case, IdentityServer will automatically update the grant to use a hex encoded Key.

Data Property

The Data property contains information that is specific to the grant type. For example, consent records contain the scopes that the user consented to grant to the client.

The Data property also contains a copy of the SubjectId, SessionId, ClientId, Description, CreationTime, and Expiration properties when those properties are applicable to the grant type. The copy in the Data is treated as authoritative by IdentityServer, in the sense that the copy is used when grants are retrieved from the store. The other properties exist to enable querying the grants and/or for informational purposes and should be treated as read-only.

By default, the Data property is encrypted at rest using the ASP.NET Data Protection API. The DataProtectData option can be used to disable this encryption.

Time Stamps

All grants set their CreationTime when they are created as a UTC timestamp.

Grants that expire set their Expiration when they are created as well. Consent records only expire if the ConsentLifetime property of the Client is set. By default, ConsentLifetime is not set and consent lasts until it is revoked. Authorization code records always include an Expiration. They expire after the AuthorizationCodeLifetime has elapsed, so they are initialized with their Expiration set that far into the future. Reference token records expire in the same way, with their Expiration controlled by the AccessTokenLifetime. Refresh token records also always include Expiration, controlled by the AbsoluteRefreshTokenLifetime and SlidingRefreshTokenLifetime client settings. Custom grant records should set the Expiration to indicate that they are only usable for a length of time, or not set it to indicate that they can be used indefinitely.

Some grants can set a ConsumedTime when they are used. This applies to grants that are intended to be used once and that need to be retained after their use for some purpose (for example, replay detection or to allow certain kinds of limited reuse). Refresh tokens can be configured to have one-time use semantics. Refresh tokens that are configured this way set a ConsumedTime when they are used. Authorization codes do not set a ConsumedTime. They are instead always removed on use. ConsumedTime is not applicable to reference tokens and consent, so they both never set it. Custom grant records should set the ConsumedTime if one-time use semantics are appropriate for the grant.


    /// <summary>
    /// Represents a filter used when accessing the persisted grants store. 
    /// Setting multiple properties is interpreted as a logical 'AND' to further filter the query.
    /// At least one value must be supplied.
    /// </summary>
    public class PersistedGrantFilter
        /// <summary>
        /// Subject id of the user.
        /// </summary>
        public string SubjectId { get; set; }
        /// <summary>
        /// Session id used for the grant.
        /// </summary>
        public string SessionId { get; set; }
        /// <summary>
        /// Client id the grant was issued to.
        /// </summary>
        public string ClientId { get; set; }

        /// <summary>
        /// Client ids the grant was issued to.
        /// </summary>
        public IEnumerable<string> ClientIds { get; set; }

        /// <summary>
        /// The type of grant.
        /// </summary>
        public string Type { get; set; }

        /// <summary>
        /// The types of grants.
        /// </summary>
        public IEnumerable<string> Types { get; set; }


The types of persisted grants are defined by the IdentityServerConstants.PersistedGrantTypes constants:

    public static class PersistedGrantTypes
        public const string AuthorizationCode = "authorization_code";
        public const string BackChannelAuthenticationRequest = "ciba";
        public const string ReferenceToken = "reference_token";
        public const string RefreshToken = "refresh_token";
        public const string UserConsent = "user_consent";
        public const string DeviceCode = "device_code";
        public const string UserCode = "user_code";